In 2019, an Iraqi Ministry of Health (MOH) report found that around 60-70% of medicines in the private sector do not enter the country through official processes (they are neither registered nor quality tested) – a problem that arose in Iraq after 2003, when the importation of medicines to the private sector became decentralised.

Substandard and falsified medications impact the world especially low and middle-income countries, and the problem in Iraq arose in 2003, especially after the importation of medicines to the private sector became decentralised.  

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